Contract Manufacturing

CONTRACT MANUFACTURING APPLICATION NOTES, WHITE PAPERS AND CASE STUDIES

Choosing A CM: Find The Best Match By Asking The Right Questions
Choosing A CM: Find The Best Match By Asking The Right Questions When selecting a contract manufacturer (CM), it’s important to look carefully at organizational alignment, senior leadership engagement, program management, commitment to projects large and small, and processes in place to manage risk.   Continue Reading...
Parker Hannifin Brings Robotic Exoskeleton To Life With Digital Manufacturing
Parker Hannifin Brings Robotic Exoskeleton To Life With Digital Manufacturing Parker Hannifin needed a rapid manufacturing solution to accelerate development of a robotic exoskeleton while reducing design risk. As a solution, Protolabs’ digital manufacturing technologies and automated quoting system enabled a highly repetitive design process without sacrificing time to market.  Continue Reading...
High-Volume Manufacturing: Essential Points To Consider Before You Scale Up
High-Volume Manufacturing: Essential Points To Consider Before You Scale Up To successfully scale to high-volume manufacturing, planning is required for streamlining the production process and minimizing the changes that could add unnecessary time and expense to the process.  Continue Reading...
 Why Predictability Matters In High-End PCB Manufacturing
Why Predictability Matters In High-End PCB Manufacturing Predictability is essential for PCB manufacturing. Without it, a product’s reliability cannot be assured. Conventional approaches to predictability often fall short. Inspection, for example, only reveals superficial flaws. Micro sectioning is destructive in nature and inadequate for complex PCBs with thousands of vias.   Continue Reading...
Cleaning Validation For Medical Device Manufacturing
Cleaning Validation For Medical Device Manufacturing Cleaning validation or verification is a necessary regulatory compliance step in medical device manufacturing and reprocessing. Support from the cleaner manufacturer can save time and money.  Continue Reading...
Great Prototype! Can It Be Manufactured?
Great Prototype! Can It Be Manufactured? If you work for a medical device manufacturer, you have likely felt the pain of having your device stuck in between the move from a successful product prototype to something that can be manufactured. There are risks of this no matter what type of product you’ve designed, and regardless of what industry it addresses.  Continue Reading...
A New Approach To Contract Medical Device Manufacturing Relationships
A New Approach To Contract Medical Device Manufacturing Relationships In the race to bring new devices to market, device makers have found that it is more efficient to leverage the experience and facilities of outside organizations for device development rather than recruit, hire, and train people and purchase equipment and facilities.  Continue Reading...

CONTRACT MANUFACTURING PRODUCTS

Contract Manufacturing for Single Use Finished Medical Devices Contract Manufacturing for Single Use Finished Medical Devices

Passion for technology has driven SMC Ltd. to be a leading manufacturing partner to the top medical device OEMs. With operations spanning the United States, Costa Rica, and India, SMC is positioned to assist you on your next finished medical device.

 

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About Nutrient Removal

Nutrient removal from wastewater consists of treating wastewater to remove nitrogen and phosphorus before it reenters natural waterways. High levels of nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater cause eutrophication, a process where excess nutrients stimulate excessive plant growth such as algal blooms and cyanobacteria. The decomposition of the algae by bacteria uses up the oxygen in the water causing other organisms to die. This creates more organic matter for the bacteria to decompose. In addition, some algal blooms can produce toxins that contaminate drinking water supplies.

As authorized by the Clean Water Act, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program regulates point sources, such as municipal wastewater treatment plants, that discharge pollutants as effluent into the waters of the United States. In recent years, many of the States’ environmental bodies have lowered nutrient limits to arrest eutrophication. Maryland’s effort to protect the Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries is perhaps the most notable example of nutrient removal in the US. Nutrient removal continues to be a growing area of focus for wastewater treatment throughout the world.   

The removal of nitrogen and phosphorus require different nutrient removal processes. To remove nitrogen, the nitrogen is oxidized from ammonia to become nitrate through a process called nitrification. This process is then followed by denitrification where the nitrate is reduced to nitrogen gas which is released to the atmosphere and removed from the wastewater.

Nitrification is a two-step aerobic process which typically takes place in aeration tanks. Denitrification requires anoxic conditions to encourage the appropriate biological conditions to form. The activated sludge process is often used to reduce nitrate to nitrogen gas in anoxic or denitrification tanks.

Phosphorus can be removed biologically using polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) which accumulate large quantities of phosphorus within their cells and separate it from treated water. Phosphorus removal can also be achieved by chemical removal. Once removed as sludge, phosphorus may be stored in a land fill. However, many municipalities and treatment facilities are looking to resell the biosolids for use in fertilizer.